Cooking with Virginia: How to Cook Dried Beans
Feed the World
Country cooking, the food of the working class and poor, is pretty similar all over the globe. Dried beans are inexpensive and widely available. In the Mountain South, the predominant dish is known as Soup Beans, and in the Deep South, the most common version is plainly referred to as Pinto Beans.
The South of France is famous for cassoulet, a layered casserole of beans and meat. Mexican foodways offer bean dishes of many forms Frijoles Charros (Cowboy Beans), Moros y Cristianos (Black Beans and Rice), Frijoles Refritos (Refried Beans), and more. In the Caribbean, its coconut-infused Rice and Peas (often made with red beans) and there are a tremendous number of culinary treatments utilizing dried legumes in Latin America.
Tuscany is the land of bean eaters or mangiafagioli. There are a multitude of white bean dishes including Fagioli al Fiasco, or beans cooked in a bottle nestled in the embers of a fire. (In Italian, a fiasco is a flask encased in a straw basket, such as a traditional Chianti bottle.) Theres also the hearty Tuscan soup, Ribollita or Tuscan White Bean Vegetable Stew. Yes, these simple seeds feed the world.
Pinto and Soup Beans
For my Pinto Beans and Kale Stew, I created a mash-up. Not mashed beans of recipes! I borrowed bits and pieces from a few of my favorite dishes. First, I used pinto beans, often the least expensive of all the varieties on your grocers shelf. My grandmother, from the Deep South, would make Pinto Beans with salt pork, also known as side meat. (Side meat is meat taken specifically from the sides of a pig. It may be smoked and cured, in which case it becomes bacon, or salted, in which case it becomes salt pork.) The consistency was somewhere closer to scoopable.
Soup Beans, a part of traditional Appalachian cooking, are also made of pinto beans and often simmered with some form of cured and smoked pork. They are often a bit soupier. Both versions are served with cornbread, raw onion, and often, chowchow, a pickled condiment made of vegetables and/or fruit.
Why are Red Beans and Rice Served on Monday?
Second, I borrowed the addition of sausage from the Red Beans and Rice I grew up eating in Louisiana. (I substitute turkey sausage to lighten up, yall, but you could leave it out all-together, for certain.) My Red Beans and Rice, as seen on FoodNetwork.com, is a true Creole classic. This famous dish was originally served on Mondays, utilizing the ham bone left over from Sunday supper. Very low maintenance, it simmered on the stove all day while the laundry was washed and hung it out to dry. Monday wash day is a thing of the past, but this original bowl is still often served as a lunch or dinner special on Monday at many New Orleans restaurants. (If you really want to check out the real deal, follow the escapades of Pableaux Johnson and his Roadshow!)
My third inspiration comes from central Italy. One of the many regional Italian dishes featuring the dried legume includes Ribollita, a hearty vegetable stew made with olive oil, rustic bread, cannellini, and a slow-cooked battuto of carrots, onions, and celery. Its also packed with Cavalo Nero, or Lacinato kale. I love all greens, kale included. I nearly always have a bag of pre-chopped and washed kale or collard greens in my refrigerator. I love those bags of pre-washed greens! Its so handy to grab a handful for a quick saut or to toss in a bowl of simmering broth for soup or in this case, beans.
Why do Beans Cause Gas?
Lets get this part our of the way.
You may recall the catchy childrens tune: Beans, beans, the musical fruit. The more you eat, the more you toot Yep, its true. Their natural sweetness comes from a group of sugars called oligosaccharides.These complex sugars are not digested until they reach the large intestine where they are introduced to hundreds of bacteria that live in your lower gut. Things get windy because we are missing an enzyme that is required to break down these sugars.
When beans get to the colon, the bacteria in the colon begins to ferment these sugars producing gas in the process hydrogen and methane among them. The gas accumulates and eventually escapes your body which may or may not be blamed on the dog. The best way to prevent gassiness is to cook them until completely cooked and tender, chew them thoroughly remember digestion starts in the mouth and enjoy them with whole grains and other vegetables.
Canned vs Dried
While my pantry always has a couple of cans at the ready, I prefer using dried over canned for several reasons. One of which is dried beans are easier on the pocketbook.
Lets do some math: One pound of dry edible beans yields about 6 cups of cooked; one can of is about 1 1/2 cups of drained cooked dried beans. My one pound of pinto beans for this recipe was $1.30. So, 6 cups for $1.20. And, can is at about $1.00. That same 6 cups of canned are $4.00. Granted, this isnt a tremendous amount of money for many people, but its worth it. At that rate, its $200 a year crazy to think about.
For me, as a cook, I prefer the way dried beans taste. The upside is you can control how tender or firm they are in the final dish and the amount of salt and any other ingredient that goes in them. If you cook them you can do what you wish with flavor. Theres no doubt they often take a little bit more effort and planning but not always.
To Soak or Not to Soak
Soaking dried beans in the refrigerator overnight will reduce the time they have to cook. The texture and appearance will also be better, with fewer split or burst casualties. Soaking before cooking helps to remove some of those indigestible sugars that cause flatulence. Beans that have not been soaked ahead of time will always take longer to cook, but they will cook.
The thing to remember is that the older the dried beans are, the drier and harder they become. So, older beans that have been in storage or on the grocery store shelf will take longer to cook and freshly dried ones take less. And, this is true whether you soak them or not.
To prepare dried beans for cooking: Pick over and discard any loose stones or clumps of dirt. Rinse well. Place in a large bowl. Add cold water to cover by several inches. Soak for 8 hours or overnight.
To prepare dried beans for cooking: Pick over and discard any loose stones or clumps of dirt. Rinse well. Place in a large stockpot and add water to cover. Bring to a rolling boil over high heat. Remove from the heat and let soak for 1 hour. Drain, discarding the water.
Truthfully, I am just like you and often forget to soak them overnight. So, I usually resort to the quick hour method.
Should I Salt Beans before Cooking?
Another controversial bean-to-pick is to salt or not to salt? According to the Bean Growers Association, dried beans cook faster when salt is added because salt helps break down the cell walls, so the notion of salt slowing down the cooking process is a myth.
Read that again, because pretty much everywhere tells you not to salt your beans. Add salt to your beans. I do.
How to Cook Beans on the Stovetop
Drain the pre-soaked beans and place in a large pot. Season with salt and pepper. Add water or stock to cover by a few inches. Add any aromatics such as herbs and garlic. I also usually coarsely chop an onion and add it, too. Bring to a boil then reduce the heat to simmer. Cook, stirring occasionally, until the beans are tender, 1 1/2 to 2 hours.
How to Cook Beans in the Instant Pot
This may be the main reason I have an instant pot to cook beans. I admit, I was slow to the dance, but I finally saw the blue-grey glow of the digital light. The best part is there is no pre-soaking. The second best part is there are no hours of simmering. Its simple. One pound of beans + 8 cups of water in an 8-quart instant pot takes 15 to 20 minutes to come to full pressure before cooking begins. Then, 30 minutes to cook and 20 minutes to naturally release the pressure.
In addition to 1-2 teaspoons of salt, I often add a teaspoon or so of olive oil for flavor. I will also pop in bundle of herbs and maybe a few smashed garlic cloves. So, honestly, it is only a minimum of 30-45 minutes faster than cooking on the stovetop, but the instant pot makes the whole process a dump and stir.
How to Cook Beans in the Slow Cooker
This is from The Bean Institute. Yes, really.
- Rinse beans in a colander under cool, running water and remove any that look shriveled or discolored.
- Place them in the slow cooker with enough water to cover the beans plus two inches. Use a 3 quart cooker for one pound of beans or less. A 5-quart cooker will hold two pounds of beans. Keep in mind that the beans will expand to twice their volume during cooking.
- Add two teaspoons of salt per pound. If you like, you can add aromatic ingredients like quartered onions or whole garlic cloves.
- Cook on your slow cookers low setting until they are tender. Depending on their size and type of bean, this will be between three and six hours.
You Should Be Full of Beans!
Eat more beans! Hey, blame the dog!
- Check out my recipe for Turkey and Black Bean Chili and learn the difference between chile with an E and chili with an I!
- Heres a recipe for vegan Instant Pot Etoufee from Kathy Hester.
- My Red Beans and Rice on Food Network.
Do you need more even more info and ready to add more international dishes to your recipe repertoire? I am very excited about the new cookbook by Joe Yonan called Cool Beans,available 4 February and available for pre-order now!Thanks for reading and I hope you enjoy my Pinto Bean and Kale Soup.
Bon Apptit, Yall
Please note that this post may contain affiliate links. (That means I make a commission if you use my affiliate link to buy the product.)
Pinto Bean and Kale Soup
- 1 pound dried pinto beans, (pre-soaked)
- 16 cups 1 gallon water, vegetable stock, or chicken stock, more if needed
- 6 garlic cloves, (smashed)
- 1 onion, (chopped)
- Bouquet garni: 2 bay leaves (preferably fresh, 5 sprigs thyme, 4 sprigs flat-leaf parsley, and 10 black peppercorns tied together in cheesecloth)
- 2 teaspoons coarse kosher salt, (or to taste)
- 12 ounces smoked turkey sausage, (sliced)
- 1 16-ounce bag chopped kale
- Freshly ground black pepper
- Hot sauce, (for serving)
- Place the soaked, drained beans in a large pot. Add the liquid to cover then garlic, onion, and bouquet garni. Season with the teaspoon or of salt and the pepper. Bring to a boil then reduce the heat to simmer. Cover and cook, stirring occasionally, until the beans are almost tender, 1 to 2 hours. Add the turkey sausage and continue cooking until the beans are tender, an additional 30 minutes or so. When the beans are cooked, add the kale and stir to combine. Make any adjustments to the consistency by adding more stock or water. (Its mean to be soupy, not a scoop-able side dish.) Once the kale is just wilted, taste and adjust for seasoning with salt and pepper. Serve immediately with hot sauce on the side.
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